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Manchurian Local Overprints

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Manchurian Local Overprints (MLO's) 1946 to 1947

On 8th August 1945 Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded the state of Manchukuo. The state was quickly over-run by Russian, Nationalist Chinese and Communist Chinese Troops and a great amount of chaos ensued until the Communists gained full control in 1947.

From the start of hostilities in 1945 until the decisive victory by the Communists in 1947 special measures had to be taken (often at a local level) by postmasters, to ensure the continuation of postal services and to provide revenue to pay themselves and their staff. The only stock of stamps available were those provided by their former employers the Government of Manchukuo. Postmasters made "Chops" out of various materials and overprinted the stamps they had. These chops usually read "Chinese Republic, Temporary Use" or similar. The stamps of Manchukuo were also overprinted for use in the Kwantung Leased Territory, which included Dairen and Port Arthur.

It was not just the existing GPO that produced these chops, because there were so many designs it was easy for stamp dealers to produce spurious overprints for sale to philatelists, so much so that almost a third of all the overprints listed fall into this category. Some of the chops refer to towns and villages that cannot be traced. Forgeries are still being made today and to avoid these new fakes buy from old collections where possible.

The change of regime also brought about a change in currency, and from 15th January 1946 the Manchukuo Yuan was replaced by the North-Eastern Yuan (a special currency issued by the Central Bank of China for use in the North East). The exchange rate was 1 Manchukuo Yuan to 20 North-Eastern Yuan. In 1948 this was replaced with the Gold Yuan at a rate of 150,000 North-Eastern Yuan to 1 Gold Yuan.

When the change in currency took place the domestic letter rate was 10 Manchukuo fen, after 15th January 1946 this changed to 1 North-Eastern Yuan, essentially half the rate.  This currency change is likely to be the reason for the many surcharged issues and would logically indicate that surcharged stamps date from after January 1946, this might or might not be the case.

The bible for MLO collectors is a four booklet guide The Local Overprinted Stamps of Manchuria 1945-7 by Allen D Kerr (published 1978 and now out of print - although you can still find copies on eBay). See also Volume II of the Stamp Catalogue of China by Shui-Hon Chan. Both give a great amount of detail but as these overprints are hard to draw, copy and photograph it is often difficult to make an absolute identification of some stamps you may have. Ideally work from both books, Chan has the advantage of being in colour, but Kerr benefits from a useful indexing system making the chops easier to find.

The majority of Manchukuo stamps were overprinted, including the 39f airmail stamp and even booklet panes. Kerr lists 482 different overprints, this section (at the moment anyway) shows about 420 of these so is incomplete, it will no doubt grow over time as new copies are acquired. Not all of these stamps are in my collection and if you would like to volunteer scans to for this section they will be very welcome - my thanks to those who have already done so - keep em coming.

         
Black Overprints inc Surcharges (lowest number of characters first)
 

Hailar

 

Liu Tao Ho Tze

 

Ho Li Tun

 

Tai An

 

Po Li

 

Hei Ho

 

Hai Lun

 

Bogus "Specimen"

 

Tsai Kia Kow

San Cha Ho

 

Chung Kiang Chen

 

Peh Hing Chen

 

Mo Ho

 

Chwang Ho 

 

Shih Miao Tze

 

Li Shu

 

Hei Shan Tow

 

Ta Yao

 

Lien Kiang Kow

 

Chang Tu

 

Tai ping Chwan

 

Lien Ha Chen

 

Pu Si

Shwang Cheng  

I Tung

Unidentified

Unidentified

 

Chao Chow

 

Liang Jiang Kow

 

I An

 

Sui Hwa

 

Pin Hsien

 

Shwang Kang

Tsitsihar

 

Pa Yen

 

Harbin

 

Unidentified

 

Chang Chun

 

Chin Hsien

 

Hu Lin

 

I Mien Po

 

Lan Si

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

San Tao Chen

 

Kai Yuan

 

Si An

 

Hei Ho

     

Hu Lan

   

Hailar Pai Ki Tun  

King Cheng

 

Si Feng

 

Fang Cheng

 

Sha Kang

 

Kien An

 

Fu Hsien

 

Ku Cheng

 

Chang Chun

 

Ku Cheng

 

Ping Yang Chen

 

Sung Hao Kiang

 

Chao Yang

 

Pu Lan Tien

 

Hu Lan

Pin Hsien  

Peh Chen

 

Tung Ho

 

Tun Hwa

 

Yu Li Chen

 

Tung Hwa

 

Chiu Cheng

 

An Tung

 

Mao Erh Shan

 

Ta Tung Chen

 

La Ha

 

Hei Lung Kung

 

Tai Lai

 

Fo Shan

 

Lin Kiang

 

Li Shu Jen

 

An Jen Chen

 

Yeh Ki Pi

 

Sze Chan

 

Unidentified

 

No Ho

 

Kwei Lin

 

Sui Chung

Liao Si (West Liaoning)

 

Mu Lan

 

Huan Jen

 

Tai An

 

Unidentified

 

Unidentified

 

Kwei Lin

 

Unidentified

   

Chang Wu

 

Unidentified

 

 

Hui Nan

 

Fu Sung

 

Yen Hsing

 

An Shan

 

Kin Chwan

 

Ying Kow

 

Ying Kow

 

Chien Chang

 

Kwan Tien

 

Ying Pan

    

 

Hsiung Yao

 

Su Kia Tun

 

Tung Ao Pu

 

Fa Ku

 

Kai Ping

 

Nan Tsa Mu

 

Mi Shan

 

Mukden Types

 

Hsin Tai Tze

 

Chin Chou

 

Bogus

 

Kin Hwa Chen

 

Sui-chung

 

Mao Erh Shan

 

I Lan

 

Nan Cha

 

Siao Kui Chan

 

Sun Wu

 

Wei Ho

 

Chung Chien

Nun Kiang  

Wu Chan

 

Lin Tien

 

Nun Kiang

 

Ying Chen Tze

 

Chu Lien

 

Su Kia Tun

 

Sui Hwa

 

To Kow

 

Pao Tsing

 

Yen Ki

 

Yung Ling

 

Anshan

 

Liao Chung

 

Fushun

 

Ya Ko Shi

 

Hai Cheng

 

Tao An

 

Ping Shan

 

Tan Kang

 

Tieh Ling

 

Siu Yen

Jao Ho  

Chao Yang Chen

 

Tang Yuan

 

Tsing Tui Tze

 

Mao Erh Shan Chan

 

Liao Yang

 

King Sing

 

San Tao Chen

 

Lan Hsi

 

Tieh Li

 

Tin Hsin

 

Peh An Chen

 

Sun Wu

 

Chu Ho

 

Manchouli

 

King Sing

 

KanNan

 

Lung Ho Chen

 

Chu Kia Kan

 

La Ma Tien Tze

 

Pai Chuan

 

Mi Shan

 

Mo Lin (Mu Ling)

MoLin 
 

Nun Kiang

 

Sui Hwa

 

Sui Hwa

 

Yung Shan Chen

 

Si Cheng

 

Shwang Yang

 

Tung Feng

 

Kin Kia Tun

 

Mukden

 

Nan Cha

 

Shwang Kang

 

Tung Ning

 

Shan Cheng Chen

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Unidentified

 

Ho Li

 

Pah Shih

 

Hua Tien

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Yen Tai

 

Chao Yang Chen

 

Hing Lung

 

Sin An Chen

 

Shen Shu

 

Ku Shan Tze

 

Ang Ang Ki

 

Cha Lan Tun

 

Chang Chun

 

Cha Lan Tun

 

Hua Chuan

 

Tien Li

 

Peh An

 

Peh An

 

Lung Chen Tsun

 

I Lan

 

Tsitsihar

 

Shu Lan

 

Tai An

 

Cheng Te

 

Pai Chuan

 

Sun Wu

 

Wang Kung

 

Tsing Kang

 

Hu Lin

 

Yenki

 

Sui Leng

 

Tung Hsien

 

Ho Li

 

Kwei Shan

Port Arthur & Dairen

 

Sui Tung

Shwang Cheng `

Harbin

 

Yang Mu

 

Shwang Shan

 

Hing Shan

 

Peh Chen

 

Mao Erh Shan

 

Kuo Kia Tien

 

Hu Lan

 

Mu Tan Kiang

 

Hai Lun

 

Sui Leng

 

Lien Kiang Kow

 

Ho Li

 

Harbin

 

Mi Shan

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

San Tao Chen

   

No Ho

 

Lin Kow

 

Fu Yuan

 
   

 

Hu Ma

 

 

Yen Ki

 

Chu Ho

 

Ho Li

 
 

Sia Cheng Tze

 

Fu Chin

 

Kiao Ho

Port Arthur & Dairen  

Kia Mu Sze

 

Red Overprints inc Surcharges (lowest number of characters first)

 

Ping Shan

 

Tung Hsien

 

Chang Chun

 

Liu Tao Ho Tze

Ning Nien

 
 

Lin Kow

 

Huan Jen

 

Cheng Ki Sze Han

I Mein Po

 

Yu Li Chen

 

Chu Kia Kan

Pa Yen

 

Yen Show

 

Ang Ang Ki

Wang Ni Ho

 

Ping Shan

 

Pa Yen

Harbin

Pa Yen

 

Unidentified

 

Shwang Cheng

La Lin

 

I Mien Po

 

Po Li

 

A Yung Chen

 

Ku Chia Pao

 

Tsing Yuan

 

Mu Tan Chuan

King Shan

 

Hua Shu Lin

 

Fang Cheng

 

Ku Cheng

 

Hailar

I Mein Po

 

Tai Ping Chen

 

Lien Shan

 

Chao Chow

 

Shwang Cheng

 

Lin Kow

 

Mu Lan

 

Tai An

 

Hei Shih (Chen)

 

Hua Pi Chang

 

Teh Li Sze

 

Hu Chuan Tun

 

An Tung

 

Siao Kui Chan

 

I Lan

 

Sha Sung Kan

 

Ma Kia Tien

 

Ming Yueh Kow

 

Ya Pu Li

I Mien Po

 

Chu Ho

Yen Show

 

Su Kia Tun

Su Kia Tun

   

Sun Wu

 

   
 

Ning Nien

 

Manchuli

 

Fu Hsien

 

Hai Lun

 

Sui Hwa

 

Pao Tsing

 

Hua Chuan

 

Tung Ho

 

Tsing Ho Men

 

Feng Cheng

 

San Tao Chen

 

Kan Nan

 

Ya Ko Shi

 

Ping Shan

 

Mao Erh Shan Chan

 

Ai Gun

 

Mao Erh Shan

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Chu Ho

 

I Lan

 

Tung Ho

 

Tsing Kang

 

Hai Peh (red)

   
   
 

Ang Ang Ki

 

Tsing Yuan

   

Tung Peh

 
   

 

Kia Pen Shan

 

Shen Shu

 

Hailar

 

Tung Ho

 

Cha Lai No Erh

 

Fu Yu

Port Arthur & Dairen  

Peh An

 

Tsing Kang

 

Wei Ho

 

I Lan

 

Hai Peh (crimson)

 

Tung An

 

Hai Lin

 

Sun Wu

 

Chang Ling

 

Chao Yang Chen

 

Mukden

 

Shwang Cheng

 

Lin Tien

Tung Ho

 

Ang Ang Ki

 

Ya Pu Li

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

Chu Ho

 

Pin Hsien

 

No Ho

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Tang Yuan

 

Fu Yu

 

Hei Shan

 

Mu Tan Kiang

 

Port Arthur & Dairen

 

Tu Men

 

Hu Ma

 

Sia Cheng Tze

 

Ping Shan

 

Sia Cheng Tze

 

Port Arthur & Dairen

 

Purple and Violet Overprints inc Surcharges (lowest number of characters first)

 

Po Ko Tu

 

Huan Jen

 

Po Ko Tu

 

Hai Lun

 

Tien Kang

 

Sung Hao Kiang

 

Sin Li Tun

 

Kwan Ti

 

Peh Hing Chen

 

Ai Gun

 

Lin Kow

 

Sui Tung

 

Tai An

 

Nun Kiang

 

Lan Si

 

Sze Tai Chen

 

Hua Chuan

   

Ming Shui

 

Hei Ho

         
 

King Shan

 

I An

 

Unidentified

 

Unidentified

 

Unidentified

 

Lin Kow

Tsitsihar  

Yu Li Chen

 

Ko Shan

 

Tsing Yuan

 

Tung Ho

 

Sha Ho Tze 

 

Teh Tu

Tung Hai  

Hei Ho

 

La Lin

 

Chi Kan

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Ya Pu Li

Ang Ang Ki

 

Shwang Cheng

 

Yung Feng

Swe Fang Tai

 

An Ta

 

I Hsien

 

Tai Ping Chen

 

Heng Tao Ho

 

Ko Shan

 

Hailar

 

Hu Lan

 

 

Lan Si

 

La Ha

 

Yu Li Chen

   

Unidentified

 

 

Ta Yu Ling

 

Tung Ho

 

Yu Li Chen

 

Tung Kiang

 

Lan Si

 

Chu Ho

 

Ko Tung

 

A Cheng

Tu Men

 

I An

 

Siao Kui Chan

 

Hu Lan

 

Hu Tou

 

I An

 

Fu Yu

 

Lin Kow

 

Ta Chuan

 

Mao Lin

 

Sia Kiu Kai

 

Ning An

 

Pao Tsing

 

Kan Nan

 

Ta Shih Kiao

 

Ta Yang Shu

 

Tieh Li

 

Sui Hwa

 

Kin Chwan

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Ta Ha

 

Kiao Ho

 

Sui Hwa

 

Hai Lun

 

Sui Leng

 

Pai Chuan

 

Manchuli

Ang Ang Ki  

Peh An Chen

 

Peh An

 

Yen Show

 

Kien An

 

Sze Fang Tai

 

I Mien Po

 

I Mien Po

 

Ming Shui

 

Peh An

 

Ang Ang Ki

 

Wei Ho

 

Tung Hsien

Port Arthur & Dairen  

Peh An

 

An King

 

Sui Leng

 

Sui Tung

 

Ko Shan

Pen Ki
(Liaoning Posts)

 

Hai Lin

 

Tung Ho

 

Hai Peh

 

Cha Lai No Erh

 

Chang Chun Chen

 

Teh Tu

 

I An

 

Ko Tung

 

Hai Peh

 

Shan Cheng Chen

 

San Cha Ho

 

Lwan Ping

   

Mu Ling

 

Lin Kow

 

 

Ning An

 

Sui Hwa

 

Yu Li Chen

 

Ang Ang Ki

 

Wu Hai

 

No Ho

 

Sui Leng

 

Sia Cheng Tze

 

No Ho

 

Chu Ho

 

Ku Cheng

 

Hei Shan

 

Mu Tan Kiang

 

An Kuang

 

Tung Ho

 

Blue Overprints inc Surcharges (lowest number of characters first)

 

Hai Lun

Chang Chun

 

Nun Kiang

 

Ta Tze Cheng

 

Tung Kiang

 

King Yuan

 

Ping Shan

 

Ta New Kow

 

Tung Ho

 

Ang Ang Ki

Hu Lin  

Yeh Ki Pi

 

Ta Hei Chen

 

Tung Kiang

 

Ming Yueh Kow

 

Huai Te

 

Tang Yuan

 

Ping Yang Chen

 

Lung Chen Tsun

 

Lin Tien

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

Ta Shih Kiao

 

King Yuan

 

Lien Kiang Kow

 

Mao Erh Shan

 

Peh Chen

 

Kia Mu Sze

 

Ho Li

 

Ho Li

 

Pai Chuan

 

Kien An

 

Hu Lin

Pen Ki
(Liaoning Posts)
 

Sun Wu

 

Chen Tung

   

Ku Chai Ho

 

Chu Lien

 

Sui Pin

 

Tun Hwa

 
 

Ping Shan

 

Fu Yu

 

Fu Chin

 

Ho Li

 

Ho Li

         

Green Overprints inc Surcharges (lowest number of characters first)

 

Mi Shan

 

Shwang Cheng

 

Ya Pu Li

   

Yen Show

 

 

Ya Pu Li

 

Wei Ho

 

Chu Ho

 

Chu Ho

 

Yen Show

 

Shih Tao Ho Tze

 

Ping Yang Chen

     
       
 

Yen Show

 

Chu Ho

Port Arthur & Dairen

Port Arthur & Dairen

 
         
         

Stamps were not the only Manchurian Local Overprints

This is another example of philatelic material being re-used due to wartime shortages. These are Japanese military postcards that have been slightly reduced in size and overprinted by a Russian company for use as a cigarette wrappers. They will be contemporary with the M.L.O. stamps shown above and are no less interesting.

         

        

Banknotes also needed to be updated and this was done with a sticker. The example below shows a Guandong Bank adhesive stamp as applied to Red Army and Manchurian banknotes in 1947. They where used in the special joint Sino-Soviet (Military) Administrative Zone of Dalian (Luda).

         
         
 

 
         
 

The above stickers may be fakes from the period.